User Experience The Beginner's Guide
Good artists copy. Great artists steal
Designers need to take into account Psychology when designing things
Lesson 1 Intro
What I learned in a tweet
User experience is a broad category that touches many different sciences. Understanding the Humans that use your product is essential to building a product that connects with them.
Top 3 takeaways
Researching your real life users is crucial to a successful design
Personifying the different kind of users prevents putting them in a box
Real life context affects how your users interact with your software
User Experience definition
"a person's perceptions and responses that result from the use or anticipated use of a product, system or service" (ISO 9241-210)
User Experience is a broad field. From the design to how the application feels when you are using it falls under UX.
UX covers many disciplines:
a user uses your producs
What are you thinking?
Why did that confuse you?
Where user needs and business needs overlaps
User centered design process
takes the needs of the user into account at every stage of the product lifecyle
web apps, mobile apps, desktop apps
Why should you care?
you are doing this stuff already
User Centered Design is a process its scientific
its not hard
A User Experience designer employs which approach to the design process?
1.3 Why is UX Design so Important
The change of the name signifies a shift in the field.
Experience is why users go to specific systems.
ISO 9421 effectiveness - does it doe the right thing? efficiency - does it do that with minimum effort? satisfaction - does it make you feel good?
Emotion is the bottom line. Make your customers happy.
Which job title are you currently most likely to see?
1.4 Mind the Empathy Gap
Willian Hudson gives this video lesson.
Mind the gap.
There is a gap between what developers think are good for users and what is actually good for users.
Serveral kinds of empathy
We are talking about cognative empathy.
Understand a problem from an other persons point of view. Mindwise (Book) says that the only effective way to do this is to ask someone what their point of view is.
Empathizers have Theory of mind
sytemizers - build and understand systems - causality
Men are more inclined to have a drop in eq as you have a more technological job
increasing empathy on teams can improve User Experience
Focus on methods to improve the teams understanding of users
persona stories as a replacement for user stories
empathy promoting usability testing
focus of development on user behaviour and needs
1.5 Usability A part of the User Experience
Usability - the ease of access and/or use of a product or website.
There are levels of usability.
Usability can be measured. It should be measured through out all the steps.
They have a list of usability considerations for different technologies
Use ALT tags
404 Not Found Page
Font Size and Color
1.6 Human Centered Design
Using the word "user" dehumanizes them
interact with your users
on its own, poor solution to the over all problem
Research and undersand the contexts of use.
The contexts of use are everything about how systems are actually employed in the real world.
Cafe/pub vs SuperMarket
Super market, theres an operator of the check out software and one person buying the things with 100 or more items. needs to be done efficiently
Cafe, there are many operators. Need to switch customers quickly.
We often design for environments that are similare to our own.
Research contexts of use -> specify user requirements -> produce design solutions -> evaluate against requirements -> back to some previous step || meets requirements
Just evaluating will only filter out bad designs -> you end up with a lot of waste. It can't be the only one
Produce prototypes as early as possible
DONE summarize this lesson for Ux Anti-Book Club Meeting
Design isnt a check list. Its ever evolved.
Likes the potential points/essay questions.
Liked the overal progress and milestones - whats going to happen
Disappointed when you dont reach perfection - theres no such thing
Seeing testing js content on egghead is an empathy problem.
Jobs to be done - what job is egghead solving? what job is a course solving right now?
Month subscriptions solve a problem right now. A year subscription is generally useful.
Add topics list in the lesson description.
egghead vscode extension
egghead has a strong long going Sales Safari
Human Action - Ludwig von Mises
Everything is tied to emotion.
Not understanding the emotional aspect, you are missing a huge piece to the product.
Cree gets frustrated when amazon shows them a puppy picture when theres an error
Drop box's download feature is sad
Likes the things that motivate you to keep going.
Didn't like the forum aspect
Wants to find the middle ground between UX and anthropology
UX is so big its almost meaningless:
Wants to dive into: Design Anthropology and Applied Anthropology
Samuel Hulik despises persons
RTFM is a common phrase for developers
egghead is good at user research. Actively learning as the customers we are trying to solve for.
Erik D Kennedey: Learn UI Design. Geared around sketch
Learn UX Design is also a course
Focusing on Interaction Design for past couple of years
SuperHi is a ui course. Uses figma.
Doesnt code and design in the browser
Thinks transcripts arent that helpful. They should be teaching notes.
Lesson 2 Why You Should Care about User Experience
Lesson 2 Summary
What I learned in a tweet
User experience research makes your application more pleasurable; it also reduces the cost of your project over time. You spend less time tweaking your product after launch. UX research also reduces the chance to miss your target audience completely 😳 https://twitter.com/_jonesian/status/1263161523616260096?s=20
3 take aways
UX research increases the chance that you actually solved a problem
You, as the designer, are the expert of the app you build
The sooner you start doing research the sooner your product will align with the needs of your users
Kent is releasing epicreact.dev soon and we are talking about a new lesson model where a lesson has multiple parts. Getting this in front of users as soon as we can before the launch will make everything go much smoother.
Within this lesson we will cover:
Return on Investment on user experience design
Why you should conduct user research as part of your work process
2.2 How to Sell UX Design to Client
Benefits of UX
Products that meet the user's needs - If your users are involved in the design process then your final product should meet their needs. That should deliver a more commercially viable offering and thus higher levels of profit for the company.
Products that require less tinkering after release - It's cheaper and easier to tweak sketches, wireframes and prototypes than it is to tweak a product after launch. UX enables a company to work out what doesn't work and then abandon it before the development phase rather than after.
Products which are less risky to the business's reputation - UX is a quality measure. When you release products that users love to use and that meet their needs; your business reputation will grow. Conversely if you don't get things right - your reputation will fall.
Products which are relatively immune to scope creep - If you define the user's needs and then design with them in mind; there should be a whole lot less scope creep and that makes it easier to budget for a project and to define a delivery timetable.
Products which are competitive - the research phase of UX means that you should know what competitors are doing and how your product will be "better". Design in this manner is based on the evidence and not on the "gut instincts" of the development team.
User experience should lower the cost of development and increase customer satisfaction.
Fank Spillers CEO at Experience Dynamics gives a talk about ROI of UX. It's very long.. I dont want to watch this.
2.3 What it is and why you should do it
3 reasons to do user testing
create designs that are truly relavent
create designs that are easy and pleasurable to use
understand ROI of UX design
UX places humans at the center of your design. There are quantitative methods and qualatative methods to do User Research.
Quantative: Surveys and formal experiments Qualitative: Interviews and usability tests
create designs that are truly relavent
If you cant understand your users, theres no way to make your design relevant to them.
They mention Design Thinking here
Interviews and observing users in the context where they will use your design should be an inital step in a project.
Build the habit of testing your designs on users.
They cite an example where samsung did user research on tvs and found that people were using tvs more as furniture and not center pieces, keeping the tv turned off and hidden most of the time. This allowed them to adjust their designs to more minimalistic tvs.
create designs that are easy and pleasurable to use
The day where tools that can only be used by experts are long gone.
This reminds me of emacs. Only programmers can use it because its so configurable and honestly has poor ux.
You are the expert of how to use your own product. This blinds us from the Beginners Mindset
understand ROI of UX design
The idea here is that UX is often the first thing to get cut from the budget. This wont be an issue at egghead.
If you can show that the changes you made in the design generated more sales, resulted in a larger number of customers, or made work processes more efficient, you have a much stronger case for investing in UX.
Jobs to be done vs personas
"Think out side of the box" - not helpful
Core of Jobs to be done: Activity Theory
"Systemizing human emotion" - sounds like a contradiction
Websites should be easy to use on the first experience.
Joel can't highlight and it makes him sad
UX people want to start over every time
https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=11&v=ZStAw7J2TIw&feature=emb_title ^ "Webinar: Social Reading, Collaborative Annotation, and Remote Learning with Hypothesis" - hypothesis.is
Deep hanging out
Mother of all demos
Thomas Kuhn The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
Comfort is the default to the survivability of our species
Lesson 3 Understanding User Experience
What I learned in a tweet
You aren't selling a product. You are selling the experience your product provides. How does that experience transform the people that use your product?
3 take aways
People are buying an experience first and for most. They dont care about the technical decisions that are made
Design is a conversation between the designer and the people that use the design. This conversation happens in time, so its important to consider the story your telling
Products are an opportunity to change the behavior of the people buying. Design should facilitate this change with the motives of the people in mind.
Experience Design can be applied to how our members learn. Do they want to change their habits when it comes to how they learn? Can we provide an experience that changes their behavior in a way that makes it clear that there is a more effective we to learn? Learn in Public Really Good Notes
Why you should design for experiences rather than product features.
Guidelines for doing experience design
Future directions for experience design
3.2 Marc Hassenzahl introduction to UX
Marc dislikes user experience as a term. Experience is a broader field.
UX is a field of study.
2 ways to look at experience:
in the moment experience. What you do/in the moment. Focuses on the how.
moment by moment is very small. the memory of the experience lasts a lot longer.
marc likes to design for stories or the experiences.
How can we tell a story in a product. He uses the wake up light as an example.
iPhone is an infrastructure. The experiences are in the applications. Marc likes to forget the whole product and provide an experience.
Talks about different shades of materialism. People are starting to want the experience. "post-materialistic."
This makes me thinks about how it doesnt matter what stack you choose for an application, is the experience you are providing the right one? does your software provide the experience that you need?
3.3 Marc Hassenzahl Guidelines for Experience Design
Design is a dialogue.
The user has their values and what they want
the designer has their values and what they want
the design is the medium this conversation happens
why? - be goals
what? - do goals?
how? - motor goals
The why gets ignored a lot of the time.
Design the why before the what and how.
What emotions do you want the user to have... then implement the product that fills those emotions.
Design is time dependent. Its not static. Experience Design, you are writing scripts or stories.
grape picking product. A grape picking bucket that you can turn over into a seat. The story comes from grape pickers needing breaks after they finish a bucket load.
Theres a responsibility of the designer to tell the correct story.
3.4 Marc Hassenzahl Future Directions for Experience Design
Think of the experience before the product.
Samsung doesnt manufactur tvs, they provide a tv viewing experience.
The methods reflect your background. We need to pull methods from multiple backgrounds.
You need to figure out the effects of your product before you release it.
Automation is outcome oriented. Automation can seperate you from the actual task you are doing.
Tea making example.
Shape behavior of people in a way that gives them an insight into why you want them to do that thing.
I want to behave differently but I need something to help me change.
Use the motives of the user to help drive your product. How can you align the motives of a user with what your product provides?
journey mapping, story boarding
what assumptions are we making about our learners?
Raph Koster - A Theory of Fun
Kent Beck- Small Talk Best Practice Patterns
Kathy Sierra - Headfirst Design Patterns
Ask Book Ryan Lavesque
Lesson 4 Three Aspects of Product Experience
3 take aways
Don Norman teaches 3 levels of design: Viseral, Behavioral, Reflective. 2 of these levels are unconcious and drive a lot of the feelings we have towards a product. Reflective design draws on peoples identities and who they want/think of themselves.
Behavioural design should reflect the real world. People come to your site with conceptual models of how things should work, understanding these conceptual models with make a more pleasurable experience.
To design at the reflective level, we must undersant what a product means to a user.
This lesson reminded me of the 4 buckets that Joel mentioned in one of our meatings and how we can design a site that makes one of these feelings or aspirations apparent:
solid foundation - this is folks that are working on the basics to build a solid career foundation.
going deep - this is for folks that want a deeper level understanding of the tools they use. Algorithms, data structures, computer science topics...
stay current - this is for folks that are trying to keep their thumb on the pulse. What's new, what's changed, what are they missing...
shine at work - this is for folks that have real problems to solve and want to look smart and stay relevant on the job
What I learned in a tweet
When you are designing a product, a lot of the design will be processed unconciousl. The aspects your audience does process will be heavily tied to their story and what they are trying to do.
Quote backs -- Tom Critchlow
The idea of "transclusion" across the web
Email is a key way to communicate with your users.
Neuro linguistic programming
Pain Dream Fix - Amy Hoy
Be truthful and actually deliver value.
Three games: Traps, puzzles, monsters
Finite games vs Infinite Game Paul Jarvis
UbD - adventure modules for learning.
Finite games produce competition, Infinite games produce collaboration
MDA: A Formal Approach to Game Design and Game Research - Robin Hunicke, Marc LeBlanc, Robert Zubek
Agency - the ability to do what you want. Levels to agency.
Open Space technology https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Space_Technology
Crees going through free code camp. He doesnt feel like hes learned anything until he does the project and is able to accomplish tasks.
Joel wants cree to create swipe files for code examples.
4.2 Norman's Three Levels of Design
The three levels are visceral, behavioral, and reflective. The visceral level is responsible for the ingrained, automatic and almost animalistic qualities of human emotion, which are almost entirely out of our control. The behavioral level refers to the controlled aspects of human action, where we unconsciously analyze a situation so as to develop goal-directed strategies most likely to prove effective in the shortest time, or with the fewest actions, possible. The reflective level is, as Don Norman states, "...the home of reflection, of conscious thought, of learning of new concepts and generalisations about the world".
Concerns itself with appearances. How someone feels when they look at it.
There is a big focus on viseral design these days.
Has to do with pleasure and effectiveness of use.
The behavioral level essentially refers to the emotions we feel as a result of either accomplishing or failing to complete our goals.
considers the rationalization and intellectualization of a product. Can I tell a story about it? Does it appeal to my self-image, to my pride?
Don Normon TED talk
Pleasant things work better.
Dopamine puts you into a breadth first search for problems
Fear causes depth first search. Focusing on one solultion
Automatic behavior is subconsious. Most of what we do is automatic.
Emotion is about interpreting the world.
Jake Cress - Chair with Claw
4.3 Visceral Level of Processing
At this level, the perceptible qualities of the product – primarily the physical appearance, but, wherever possible, this also includes the auditory, haptic, smell and taste information – influence and shape our impression automatically. Visceral processing is largely an unconscious event, which allows us to make judgments instantly, such as whether we like the appearance of something or whether it poses us any potential threat or danger.
The instantly perceptible characteristics of the product.
We must not confuse aesthetics with beauty.
Aesthetics is as much about representing your understanding of the intended users and how they will use the product
It may be trite to say, but beauty really is in the eye of the beholder. For this reason, we must investigate and understand who the beholder is, what they are looking for, and how to catch their eye in this respect.
So as to ‘grab’ potential customers, you must tap into their attitudes, beliefs, feelings, and/or general world view – primarily via your product’s visual aspects.
4.4 Behavioral Level of Processing
Norman emphasizes the importance of designing for positive and fitting emotional responses, arguing that this is an equally important consideration as the interactive experience
Much of our emotional experience is a direct result of how successful, enjoyable or efficient our interactions are with the things we come across in our everyday lives.
We want the user to accurately predict what they can do from a screen.
visible interactive elements
accurate conceptual models "mental simulations of devices that enable users to judge the means of operation and possible uses"
natural mapping A natural mapping occurs at a primitive level and trades on our state as innately spatial beings
Visible Results Physical objects have often give inicators about a change in their perceptible state
Proportional and meaningful Feedback Objects should change when a user interacts with them. These interactions must inform the user of the affordance. Graphical objects need to support behavioral processing.
Norman states, "The behavioural level is the site of most human behaviour. Its actions can be enhanced or inhibited by the reflective layer and, in turn, it can enhance or inhibit the visceral layer"
A bad behavioral experience can influence the visceral and reflective emotional experiences in kind.
4.5 The Reflective Level of Emotional Design
I can tell stories about this design.
Normon focuses on how the user feels when interacting with a design rather than usability considerations. This seems hard to test.
Reflective processing is the only conscious form of processing.
You have to know what your product means to your users to design for reflective processes.
An example of this is apple showing commercials of users just having a good time with their product. It doesn't show how to actually use the product.
What does reflective design look like for an education business? Is it Joels 4 buckets of people we have researched?
Advertising is just one way of tapping into the Reflective Level.
Analyzing superficial Qualities
regarding our presents likes/dislikes
Make descisions about how others will judge us
Reflecting on past experiences
how did we feel when using a product?
Attaching Meaning for personal development
we often project our hopes onto a product
exercise equipment is a huge benefactor of this
education also seems like a big benefactor of this desire
Lesson 5 Emotion and Experience
3 take aways
There are three ways systems deal with emotion: emotion is the primary goal, eg a game, systems that detect emotion, and a system that is a conduit of emotion.
When building software systems, we try to emulate feelings that people have in the real world. Alan used a cracker example
Baked bean design vs Peak design. Individuals are looking for things that specifically fit their needs. Designing for this a small group of people will make your product focused and will generally beat a product that is designed for the general population.
At egghead, our design needs to be focused on web developers. We want to motivate our learners to take courses that are in their area of interest.
What I learned in a tweet
When individual choice is involved, systems designed for the general population will always lose to those that are target a small group of people.
5.2 Emotions in Systems
Art, games, entertainment, the primary goal is emotion.
Some functionality is a support to the experience.
Systems and Emotion
Our systems should make users feel an emotion. Motivation, security, etc
Systems should also detect emotions:
How are users interacting with your system that tell you what emotion they are feeling.
Sometimes the system is the conduit for emotion. Communication software. Emojis.
5.3 Application Areas
Snood game - its a bubble game but each bubble has a face on it. Gives more emotion to the game
Extrinsic vs Intrinsic motivation
Intrinsic motivation is a stronger motivation
Persuasive interfaces - an add for stop smoking
He uses Home as an example of where emotion is the primary focus. The work of Home
How do we express identity with our technology?
SenToy - a game where you control the emotion of a wizard with a doll like controller
5.4 Crackers Case Study
Alan Dix company wanted to send e chrismas card.
Crackers usually are
cheap and cheerful
bad joke inside
Not just making a design, just trying to emulate the feeling
There are surface elements
|Surface Elements||Real Cracker||Virtual Cracker|
|Design||cheap and cheerful||simple page/graphics|
|Play||plastic toy and joke||web toy and joke|
|Dressing Up||paper hat||mask to cut out|
|Experienced Effects||Real Cracker||Virtual Cracker|
|shared||offered to another||sent by email|
|co-experience||pulled together||sender cant see content until opened by recipient|
|excitement||cutural connotation||recruited expectation|
|hiddenness||contents inside||first page - no contents|
|surprise||bang (when it goes off)||WAV file (when it works)|
*Listen to the emotional response and make sense of * it.
5.5 Designing for Peak Experience
There are products that you design for people to not hate. What is the general experence that people wont hate. Then there are products where you are designing for specific people.
Baked bean design
things others choose for us
things we have to share
office systems, government web systems
Mars bar design
things we choose for ourselves
some web services
The good enough product will always loose when the user has individual choice. Its important to be really great for a small group of people rather than good enough for most people.
Traditional interface design
average and typical
These are good techniques for bakes bean design
Design for peak experience
specific and eclectic ideas
When to Seek Peak Experience
User Experience is central
If you always design for the average, you will lose to someone designing for a peak experience.
Lesson 6 Design Thinking
Joel - JTBD Jobs to be done play book, competing against luck, when coffee and kale compete. Clay Christianson not a lot of implementations for JTBD. Jobs to be done from doubter to believe
Define the damn thing
Pam - disign thinking is good for defining the problem The harm in design thinking is who is in the room when the design thinking is happening develop questions around intent. design with the community not for
Who are you leaving out when you design for specific users?
Empathy is stepping into someone elses feeling, compassion is stepping out your own emotions
Going over a tool a month
If you arent using a framework (for design or development) you are inventing a framework and relying on ad hoc randomness
Maggie - button copy
Its a non-linear process
Empathise empathise to help define the problem
Prototype Prototyping can spawn new ideas
Test Testing can create new ideas tests reveal insights that redefine the problem Learn about users through testing
6.2 5 Stages in Design Thinking Overview
Design Thinking is a design methodology that provides a solution-based approach to solving problems.
This involves consulting experts to find out more about the area of concern through observing, engaging and empathizing with people to understand their experiences and motivations, as well as immersing yourself in the physical environment so you can gain a deeper personal understanding of the issues involved.
Analyze your observations from the empathise stage and synthesise them into the core problems.
Be user centered. "User needs this because of reasons" vs "We need this because users think this way".
Human centered problems
There are many techniques to come up with solutions to problems:
Brainstorm, Brainwrite, Worst Possible Idea, and SCAMPER.
Produce a scaled down version of a solution
This is where user feedback comes in again. User Research
The final stage where designers and "evaluators" test the complete product
Design thinking is a non linear process.
Most projects start with empathy because you need a deep understanding of your users to build a product for them.
Adopt the mindset of a beginner. Completely letting go of your assumptions is impossible
Question everything the user is doing
photo and video user-based studies
Users filmed in natural setting or with the design team/consultants.
personal photo and video journals
have your users record themselves doing the tasks you asked.
Focus on extreme users
These users often experience the problems your service provides at another level.
On the other hand, it is important to note that the purpose of engaging with extreme users is not to develop solutions for those users, but to sieve out problems that mainstream users might have trouble voicing; however, in many cases, the needs of extreme users tend to overlap with the needs of the majority of the population.
6.4 Define the Problem
This is likely the hardest part in Design thinking. You have to synthesise your observations of what the user is doing into a problem statement to solve for. This reminds me of the Forging process.
A focused problem statement makes creating ideas for solutions easier.
You must first analyze and synthesise your data before comming up with problem statements.
analysis is boiling concepts and problems down into easier to understand parts. synthesis is piecing the problem parts together into a cohesive idea.
A problem statement should be human centered. Focus on the users you are trying to solve the problem for. Not the technology or product specification. Should be broad enough for creativity. Not focusing on technical implementations.
Ways to define a problem
Space Saturate and Group and Affinity Diagrams – Clustering and Bundling Ideas and Facts
This seems like using a whiteboard and a bunch of sticky notes to group related ideas/observations.
Lay out four quadrants: Said, Did, Thought, Felt. Thought and felt require some observation skills
Point Of View – Problem Statement
Three elements: user, need, and insight
User... some description needs... verb because... compelling insight
“How Might We” Questions
Use your problem statment to generate how might we questions
"As a general rule, asking 'why’ yields more abstract statements and asking 'how’yields specific statements. Often times abstract statements are more meaningful but not as directly actionable, and the opposite is true of more specific statements." – d.school, Method Card, Why-How Laddering
Why-How Laddering starts with asking Why to work out How they can solve the specific problem or design challenge.
Generate a large number of ideas.
“Ideation is the mode of the design process in which you concentrate on idea generation. Mentally it represents a process of “going wide” in terms of concepts and outcomes. Ideation provides both the fuel and also the source material for building prototypes and getting innovative solutions into the hands of your users.” – d.school, An Introduction to Design Thinking PROCESS GUIDE
Brainstorm Braindump Brainwrite Brainwalk Challenge Assumptions SCAMPER Mindmap Sketch or Sketchstorm Storyboard Analogies Provocation Movement Bodystorm Gamestorming Cheatstorm Crowdstorm Co-Creation Workshops Prototype Creative Pause
Brainstorming best practices
Set a time limit
Start with a problem statement, point of view, possible questions, a plan, or a goal and stay focused on the topic: Identify the core subject or the main aim of the exercise. For example, what are you trying to achieve? Are you trying to improve a certain feature? Are you focusing on ways to improve the overall experience? Condense the main issue into a problem statement and condense it into a short “How Might We” sentence. You may even be able to synthesise this into single word. Your ideas should always branch off from this central headline.
Stay on Topic: It is easy to veer off and take lots of different directions during brainstorming sessions, especially when you are trying to be open-minded and unconstrained in your efforts to come up with ideas. It is important that members stay on topic. Focus is essential; otherwise, the process can become confusing, or ideas can become muddled and cross between solutions for other problems. Every effort should be made by the facilitator to keep members on the central theme and goal. You might even want to designate a particular brainstormer to maintain the thread and prevent team members veering off course.
Defer judgement or criticism, including non-verbal: The brainstorming environment is not the time to argue or for questioning other members’ ideas; each member has a responsibility to foster relations that advance the session. For this reason, judgement comes later so rather than blocking an idea, you and your other team members are encouraged to come up with your own ideas that sprout off from those provided by the other members of your team.
Encourage weird, wacky and wild ideas: Once again, as brainstorming is a creative activity, each member should try to encourage other members and create an environment in which they feel comfortable verbalising their ideas. Free thinking may produce some ideas that are wide off the mark, but brainstorming is about drawing up as many ideas as possible which are then whittled down until the best possible option remains.
Aim for quantity: Brainstorming is effectively a creative exercise, in which design thinkers are encouraged to let their imaginations run wild. The emphasis is on quantity, rather than quality at this stage.
Build on each others' ideas: One idea typically leads on from another; by considering the thoughts, opinions, and ideas of other team members during the brainstorming session, new insights and perspectives can be achieved, which then inform one's own ideas. Thus, the team will continue to build ideas which hopefully become progressively more refined and targeted towards the central issue.
Be visual: The physical act of writing something down or drawing an image in order to bring an idea to life can help people think up new ideas or view the same ideas in different way. The brainstorming session is more likely to evolve if team members visualise and bring ideas to life rather than rely on discussion alone.
One conversation at a time: Design thinkers (or brainstormers) should focus on one point or conversation at a time so as not to muddy their thinking and lose sight of the thread or current objective.
Ideation Methods to Select Ideas
Post-it Voting or Dot Voting.
Four Categories Method
Idea Affinity Maps
Now Wow How Matrix
Six Thinking Hats
Lean Startup Machine Idea Validation Board
Idea Selection Criteria
“They slow us down to speed us up. By taking the time to prototype our ideas, we avoid costly mistakes such as becoming too complex too early and sticking with a weak idea for too long.” – Tim Brown
Using paper prototypes for website designs can be one way of getting designs in front of users.